Sunday, January 31, 2010


It has been depicted in the Vedic Hindu philosophy that Dharma is to ‘Adopt’, i.e. “Darmo Dharyate Praja.” I am in total agreement with this. But the question still remains as to what ought to be adopted? The straightforward answer is adopting Goodness and Righteousness. Clearly it means that to adopt goodness is Dharma, which is generally known as religion. Goodness is connected with the welfare of all, hence is not limited in its scope. This being an essential condition of humankind, embracing it becomes the foremost duty of human being. That is the reason why duty also becomes connected toDharma [religion]. Dharma thus in brief is the adoption of goodness and an essential condition of humankind, and dedicated to the welfare of all. Furthermore, religion is the supreme necessity of human life. It is the best and chief source of transforming inevitable actions into righteous deeds. Therefore, those who try to minimize the importance of religion in human life or have doubts about its relevance, or question its adaptability, they are in fact not familiar with the meaning and purpose of religion.
Currently, along with Vedic-Sanatana, [popularly known as Hinduism], Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Jainism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Christianity, Islam, Shintoism, and Sikhism are generally known as the chief religions of the world. All of them have developed from time-to-time in various places of the world with the sole purpose of guiding human beings to carryout their routine in the best possible and welfaristic manner under any prevailing circumstances. The founders and propounders, besides having the purpose of securing human existence, development and achievement of goal in life as a nucleus stepped forward to guide and direct people. Among the various values that the propounders adopted for this purpose, one of them emerged as the principal or the basis of their established faith. For example: Forbearance along with tolerance [both complimentary to non-violence] in Hinduism, Ahimsa in Jainism, Compassion [Karuna] in Buddhism, Unity in Zoroastrianism, Equality [with morality] in Confucianism, Service [with love] in Christianity, Justice in Judaism, Fraternity in Islam and Valour in Sikhism emerged as their principal values respectively. Undoubtedly besides being excellent, all of them are complimentary to each other. Therefore, having based on these values Hinduism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Christianity, Islam, Shitoism or Sikhism, all of them despite their dedication and welfare to their respective followers on priority, fall within the scope of religion becoming an indivisible part of Dharma. If for this reason they are known and/or called religions, there is nothing wrong in it.
Fundamental Teachings

Except a few religions more or less are in agreement about following the three basic principles or fundaments on one hand and similar teachings to their followers on the other:
Existence of a Supreme Authority

The first among the three fundamentals is the existence of a Supreme Authority. That authority is called by countless names: Ishwara, God, Elohim, Ahura Mazda, and Allah etc. He is all pervading; is Almighty, and beyond the Law of Change. Moreover, He is the Creator, the Father of all and as states the holy Bible, ‘Ruler of creation’. Hence, God is the symbol of unity and therefore having harmony with fellow beings, His search through righteous deeds, or just actions as depicted in Judaism, and union with Him is the foremost duty of every human being.
Superiority of Human Being

The second fundamental communicates the agreement of all religions about equal supremacy of human beings among all creatures. Therefore, all religions convey to their followers the message to realize this strength and make equality the basis of their practices to prosper. They equally exhort that all have been created equally and discriminations are artificial. Hence, without equality the achievement of goal is not possible. It is desirable that all discriminations, which, in fact, are the root causes of injustice, malpractices and evils, must be given up in practice. To quote a Shloka from the Atharvaveda, in which God Himself urges, “Oh human beings! I create you in the same category; I accord you single mindedness and make you completely free of envy and malice. Oh people! Have such dedicated attraction towards one another as the cow has towards her newly born calf.” [Sahridaya Sanmanasyamavidvesha Krinomi Vah, Anyom Anyamabhi Haryata Vatsam Jatmivaghnya]. And also the holy Qur’an, “This community [of humans] is really one. But they divided themselves on their own.”
Coordination between Action and Knowledge
The third noteworthy similarity is the call in religions for coordination between action and knowledge. Among all creatures human being has been accorded a matchless brain and intellect to acquire unlimited knowledge. In other words, human beings can distinguish right from wrong, or discern false and truth. Therefore, religions lay great stress on harmony, coordination and unity between knowledge and actions so that the later lead human beings towards achieving their goal.
Hence, in brief, all major religions of the world today have the above three principal similarities, which reveal their fundamental unity on the one hand and pave the way for human-unity, common development and universal welfare on the other. These similarities are in fact their common message to the people in which remains embedded and an all-round development of each and everyone at all times.
Particularly in the process of globalization, due to unprecedented progress at all levels and in all walks of life the world is shrinking, the tempo of contact, cooperation and interdependence is increasing day-by-day, and the significance of similarities of religions is becoming more important than the past. With the level of awakening among the lowest of the low and the poorest of the poor on the increase, the spread and escalation of such kind of similarly-based teachings become very vital. Moreover, while moving forward in union has become inevitable for all, without giving much consideration to one’s own choice, the relevance of these similarities multiplies many folds.
When this state of affairs brings good fruit, connects all through heart and broad understanding, similarity of teachings of religions can prove to be effective. Hence, this cannot be undermined in current perspectives, and shall retain its importance in future as well. Particularly, those who believe in marching together for the common welfare, they can benefit a lot from the similarity in teachings of various religions.


For last several years we are witnessing discourses on globalization, global changes and its effect upon individuals, societies and nations. It appears as if globalization is some new phenomenon. Seminars, symposiums and debates are being organized continuously on subjects related to globalization and global changes at various levels all over the world. The effect of globalization on the world at present, and what can be its effect in the future, are the major points of discussions in this context. Individuals are presenting their own viewpoints on these issues, and of course they have the right to do so. But, it would be inappropriate if they neglect the reality of the process of globalization and present their views inappropriately, or with bias in particular the academicians, intellectuals or professors. It thus becomes essential and appropriate that new dimensions of the process of globalization in relation to its effect upon India and the world are discussed and analyzed. But, at the same time it is also necessary that they are examined and evaluated honestly and sincerely having the inevitability and importance of globalization in the centre.

Globalization and Global Change

Globalization [Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam in Indian term], is derived from the word Globe [Vishwa]. It is proximate to the words Vishwavyapi, Sarvadeshik, Sarvabhaum or universalism, which are broad concepts. Moreover, they deal with the continuing process of the world. By nature process is dynamic. In dynamism changes are inevitable. The pages of history before us prove this fact and I do not think the need arises to mention more in this context. Hence, it will not be inappropriate to go forward accepting the similarity in purpose between globalization and global changes.

Inevitability of Change

Change is inevitable and is essential at all levels and in all walks of life. It is an endless process. It is continuous and is an eternal law. If not so, life would become static and inactive. Movement of life would discontinue and hence, life would become aimless and meaningless. Hence continuity and changes are necessary. So, if there is a change at global level, there is nothing astonishing or new about it? Similarly it is also true that changes bear an effect too.

Throughout the ages considerable changes have taken place some of which though originated in a particular nation has had its effect worldwide. Mention may be made of the various scientific inventions [of 16th-19th Century A. D.]. We are aware that along with inventions in science, industrialization [in 18th-19th Centuries A. D.] brought about unprecedented changes in social, political and economic sphere all over the world. Despite its many side effects industrialization more or less affected each and everyone in world. But, was it not a step towards globalization?

Citing two examples of change and its effect we can bring to mention two extraordinary political events in the Twentieth Century A. D.:

First, the Communist government, which was formed for the first time under leadership of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin [1870-1924] in Russia, which besides attracting the attention of the world affected all walks of life, social, political and economic globally. Second, the British Colonialism, which was thrown away under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi in India to pave the way for Swarajya and a democratic form of government in 1947 leaving a profound impact on people all over the world.

In brief, we can talk with certainty about the inevitability of change which is essential at all levels and in all walks of life. It is a rule. Emphasizing on reality of Law of Change, two thousand five hundred years ago Gautama Buddha had said, “Nothing is beyond the process of Law of Change. It is eternal. For, nothing can be the exception to it.”

Development and Dimension

After the security of existence it is the continuous process of development, which leads man towards achieving his goal in life. In its constant process development reaches various dimensions thus widening the scope of cooperation and collaboration, which has affected the whole scenario today. Now, the world looks like a family. Despite the differences of opinion, diversities of faiths and disparities in methods of working, people all around the world are coming nearer to each other. Distance has become less. Moving forward in unison has become a necessity hence bringing the ancient Indian slogan Vasudhaiv Kutumbakam to a reality. This process will not stop; it will continue and will cross halts time and again. Despite the momentary obstacles or hindrances, interdependence will increase and cooperation among people will grow.

Moreover, limitations will decrease at all levels and in all walks, and boundaries among the nations will diminish. The slogan ‘the world is but one family’, I repeat, will transform into reality in one way or the other.

India and Global Change

Since ancient times the process of globalization has taken place in India and it is not a new phenomenon. India’s ancient civilization and composite and harmonious culture are living examples of Hindustan’s pace towards the process of globalization and global change. Dravidian-Aryan confluence and later harmony of cultures of Greeks, Kushanas, Shakas, Hunas, Arabs, Turks and Mongols within the Indian culture is a proof of this. It becomes apparent from the fact that centuries ago India opened door for those who reached its land individually or in caravans with their own beliefs, faiths or tradition from any part of the globe to settle here permanently.

Right from the era of Indus Valley Civilization India has been into trade with almost all countries of South and Southeast Asia, besides having business with countries like Bahrain, Syria, Iraq, Egypt and Greece. Since ancient times along with Vedic [Hinduism] and Buddhism, other Indian schools of thought have been drawing the attention of people around the world. They reached many countries and became the part of many in the world. Similarly, teachings of almost all major religions of the world also reached India from time-to-time and became indivisible part of life of its people. As known to all, people likeHuien Tsang, I-Tsing, Fah-Hian, Meghasthenes or Kosmas reached India in ancient times to study the life of Indians and to explore its different schools of thought. They visited many places of the country, gained knowledge and after reaching back to their respective countries paved the way for cooperation and collaboration between their compatriots and India.

In short, the history of India proves that since ancient times it has been on the forefront in the process of globalization. Furthermore, India itself has been guiding the process of change. The general approach of Indians or the nature of its culture is absolutely evolutionary. Leaving impression of their characteristics on others, and learning from the characteristics of others without any prejudice has been the main quality of Indians. Hence, if twenty-five percent of total graduates [approximately ten thousand in number] after completing their studies in the four major Indian IITs [Kharagpur, Mumbai, Chennai and Kanpur] on the strength of their capability and intellect succeed in making place for themselves every year in a country like the United States, there is nothing surprising in it. Moreover, if India after the United States and the United Kingdom becomes the third choice for the investor NRIs and if Indian cinema, life and philosophy play the vital role in the world affairs, it is not surprising.

Change and Side Effects

This process of development affects peoples positively and negatively, both. Moreover when change is major its impact is major too, hence the nature of impact becomes important in this context. With the unprecedented progress in science, the upshots of industrialization had been the root causes of colonialism and imperialism, which were responsible once for political and economic slavery of the majority of the people of the world. They were also responsible for people’s backwardness in socio-cultural spheres. Later, they paved way for competition among nations ultimately resulting in the two World Wars [between 1914-1918 and 1939-1945 respectively]. Moreover, we are witness to the current prevailing situation. Despite passing through the process of unprecedented development and awakening among the people, the world has prepared its path for its own destruction. It is really a dreadful situation for all.

India’s Responsibility

India has always played an important role in the process of globalization. It has added dimensions to this process from time-to-time. Hence, India’s importance in the current global changes is worth mentioning. Its responsibility lies in moving towards the right direction and becoming welfaristic. Furthermore, India is the biggest democracy of the world and is a country of diversities. It has presented unique example of amalgamation of diversities before the world. From economic point of view too it is an emerging super power. Its annual economic growth rate is eight to nine percent. It is a ray of hope not only for poor or developing nations but also the developed countries of the world as it is working as a bridge between the two. Moreover, due to its constantly increasing strength and development in the field of science and communication technology, India has emerged as a leading political power at the global level. Being a responsible nation India has its say in the international affairs too. In this situation it is appropriate that India watch the whole process of globalization minutely so that a situation like that of colonialism or imperialism does not emerge again, and this process and global changes prove welfaristic for all, and particularly for those who are still deprived of their rights .

Today the situation of the world is such that either all can proceed forward towards prosperity, as there is no other alternative left, or they be ready for complete destruction. In this regards, I reiterate, India with its lessons from its past, can contribute tremendously following the policy of non-aggression and non-expansionism. India has the capability of achieving this. Along with resolving its internal problems and simultaneously marching together with other nations of the world in larger interest of common men and their welfare, India with the feeling of responsibility must go forward in this direction.